In the life of every parent, sooner or later there comes a moment when, all of a sudden, some acne appears on the body of a beloved child. It’s a rash. A rash is any change in the skin. It occurs in many diseases and conditions, some of them are very dangerous.
Let’s try to figure out what kind of rash, in what cases it appears, what is it accompanied by and how mom and dad should behave so that it goes away faster.
Let’s start with the simplest – insect bites. First of all mosquitoes. As a rule, this rash is surprising in early spring and late autumn, when mosquitoes are not yet remembered or are already forgotten. In modern winter conditions, mosquitoes can live indoors (for example, in a basement) almost all year round. Of all family members, small children are the most “tasty” for mosquitoes.
Parents notice changes in the skin in the morning, after the child wakes up. Mosquito bites are characterized by the appearance of pink or reddish spots mainly on open areas of the body: hand, forearm, foot, lower leg, i.e. those parts of the body that are not covered by pajamas, and there must be elements on the face, or, sometimes, on one half of it (in the event that the child slept on his side). Most often, this rash is accompanied by itching, but not very severe. The general condition of the child does not suffer. He behaves as usual – he plays, runs, throws things around, watches cartoons and eats with gusto. If the child is not allergic to mosquito bites, then they do not require special treatment. It is enough to turn on the fumigator in the children’s room (now there are special ones, for children), and the problem will be solved by itself. In the case of a severe allergic reaction, accompanied by severe swelling, redness, severe itching, it is necessary to give the child an anti-allergic agent (for example, suprastin). Bites can be treated with drugs such as “Psilobalm” or “Fenistil-gel”, which relieve swelling and irritation.
The next, fairly common situation in which a rash occurs is an allergic reaction. This is usually a food allergy. There are children who are allergic from early childhood. Parents of such children know exactly what food can be given to their child and what not. And they know very well how to take care of the skin in this situation. Now I would like to dwell in more detail on the problem of the sudden development of allergies in a previously healthy child. This situation can develop when eating previously unfamiliar products, exotic fruits, vegetables, seafood. Or in the event that the usual dishes are prepared in a special way, using a large amount of spices and aromatic additives. Or if your child, having lost control, ate a packet of chips, ate tangerines, chocolates and washed it all down with a carbonated drink.
An allergic reaction manifests itself rather quickly. On the skin of the whole body or in certain areas (cheeks, buttocks, behind the ears), red spots appear, irregular in shape, prone to fusion and accompanied by severe itching. The general condition of the child may change: he may be lethargic or, conversely, too excited. Sometimes there is vomiting or loose stools. But more often the child feels good, but itches a lot. How can you help your baby in this situation? First of all, it is necessary to exclude from his diet foods that cause an allergic reaction, even if they are very tasty and he loves them very much. Then you need to give the child sorbents – drugs that will remove the allergen from the child’s body. These include activated carbon, smectite, zosterin-ultra, filterum. It is mandatory to take antiallergic drugs (all the same suprastin or other drugs from this group). Fenistil-gel and moisturizing cream are applied to the skin. It would be very nice to see a pediatrician or dermatologist.
An allergic reaction can also occur when the skin comes into contact with some substances, for example, washing powder, fabric softener, etc. In this case, the rash appears only in those areas that have been in direct contact with the allergen. Parental tactics in this case are similar to those for food allergies. Additionally, the substance that caused the reaction should be removed from the skin – rinse off under running water.
Now it is necessary to dwell on a large group of infectious diseases accompanied by a rash.
The appearance of a rash, as a rule, is preceded by mild malaise, symptoms of mild acute respiratory infections may be observed. Then a rash appears. At first, there is little of it – a few red spots. Every day more and more new spots appear, and the old ones turn first into a papule – a “tubercle” slightly protruding above the skin, then into a bubble with transparent contents, and, finally, the bubble dries up and a crust forms, which after a while disappears. From the moment the first speck appears until the last crust falls off, it takes about 10-15 days, during which the sick child is contagious. The chickenpox rash is common throughout the body, including the scalp and mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, genitals). The appearance of a rash with chickenpox is accompanied by itching, sometimes quite severe. Therefore, you can use the already known suprastin, fenistil gel or psilobalm.
With rubella, the rash appears almost simultaneously all over the body, but is more pronounced on the face, chest and back. It looks like small pale pink spots, almost the same size. The rash is profuse. Disappears without a trace within 4 days. A characteristic feature of rubella is enlargement of the occipital lymph nodes. All this is accompanied by mild symptoms of acute respiratory infections. There is usually no specific treatment for rubella. But all children under 1 year of age are advised to be vaccinated against rubella.
The disease begins acutely with high fever, sore throat when swallowing, sore throat. At the beginning of the disease, the tongue is thickly coated with a white bloom, then it becomes bright red, shiny. The rash appears a few hours after the onset of the disease on the trunk, limbs, with thickening in the natural folds of the skin (armpits, groin area). The rash is pink, small-punctured. At the same time, the area around the mouth remains pale. After the disappearance of the rash at the end of the first – at the beginning of the second week of the disease, peeling appears on the palms and feet. The disease is quite serious, because leaves behind complications in the form of heart and kidney damage. Requires the obligatory prescription of antibiotics and a period of dispensary observation with obligatory control of blood and urine tests.
A rash with measles appears on the 4th-5th day of illness against the background of strongly pronounced signs of acute respiratory infections (cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis, high temperature) and rains out within 3-4 days. The first elements of the rash appear on the face, upper chest. On the second day, they spread to the body, and on the third, to the upper and lower extremities. Looks like small red spots that tend to merge. It is now rare due to the immunization of children as young as 1 year old.
“Sudden exanthema”, “roseola” or “sixth disease.”
It manifests itself in high, up to 39C, temperature for 4-5 days with relatively good health. Then the temperature returns to normal, and a soft pink rash appears all over the body. After the rash appears, the child is not contagious. Very often, this rash is mistaken for an allergic reaction to antipyretic drugs.
Meningococcal disease and meningococcal sepsis are deadly diseases.
It is manifested by a very high temperature, a difficult general condition of the child, which worsens every hour, vomiting, impaired consciousness. Against the background of a high temperature, the child develops a rash (there may be only a few elements), which does not disappear with pressure. If you see such a picture in a child, you should immediately call an ambulance.
In addition to these diseases, a rash on the body occurs with herpes infection – in the form of vesicles, with infectious mononucleosis – with the appointment of antibiotics from the amoxicillin group, with pseudotuberculosis and yersiniosis – like “socks” and “gloves” and many others.
As a rule, a rash with various infections is quite typical and additional laboratory examination is not required to make a diagnosis.
In almost all infectious diseases, in addition to the rash https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rash, there is a high (or not very) temperature, general malaise, loss of appetite, chills. You may have a headache, or your throat, or your stomach. There is a runny nose, or a cough, or diarrhea.
In addition to infections, a rash occurs with diseases of the blood or blood vessels. In these cases, the appearance of a rash is provoked by injuries, sometimes very minor. The rash looks like large or small hemorrhages (bruises) and requires additional examination to make an accurate diagnosis.